Types Of Bacteria Discovered In Sea Water.

Over 20,000 Types of Bacteria Discovered in Sea Water. Many Can Be Beneficial. A good idea for a science fair project.

Most people believe that bacteria in sea water is a bad thing. But this is not always the case. There are many instances where bacteria will detoxify seawater. In one case bacterial microorganisms will turn poisonous sulfides into harmless sulfur, thereby protecting sea life. This subject would be most interesting for a science fair project.

Scientists have discovered that in just one liter of seawater, there can be more than 20,000 different types of bacteria. This discovery was made by an international project attempting to catalog all types of ocean life. It reveals that microbial biodiversity is much greater than previously thought. The technique used to make this astounding discovery allows for the immediate identification of organisms by probing small amounts of DNA. Probing this data could be the basis for a really interesting series of science fair projects. The research was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The study reveals just how much more there is to learn.

Recently off the coast of Namibia, a large patch of discolored surface water was noticed, and it was revealed that this was toxic hydrogen sulfide released from the seafloor. Most events of this type go unnoticed by satellite imagery because the bacteria consumes the sulfides before they reach the surface. Oftentimes, the marine bacteria produces hydrogen sulfide. Much of this hydrogen sulfide is toxic to animals, and in this case a bacterial bloom detoxified a great area of hydrogen containing water before it became deadly. A good science fair project on the subject of bacteria in sea water could be developed from this information.

In some rivers, hydrogen sulfide is known for its smell of rotten eggs. It is also highly toxic. So much so that humans can die within minutes when exposed to high concentrations. This foul smelling gas threatens our coastal waters, where over ninety percent of our fish are caught. In the case cited above, bacteria detoxified coastal waters almost three times the size of Luxembourg. During a recent research cruise, a number of whales were observed eating large quantities of fish, squid and shrimp that were on the sea surface. Never before had so many marine animals been seen in one place. It is believed that this was caused by the action of bacteria transforming sulfide into fine particles of non toxic sulfur creating a good environment for sea life.

Hydrogen sulfide will kill higher life forms as well as fish, oysters, shrimp and lobsters. An area the size of the Irish Sea was affected by bottom waters containing sulfur without being visible on satellite photos. Wholesale deaths by sulphur suffocation also have been reported off India, California and the Gulf of Mexico as well as European waters. The smell of rotten eggs is a warning that toxic gas is released. It first irritates the eyes and then quickly can result in death.

When the scientists began these studies, they expected to find about 2,000 species for each liter of seawater. You can imagine their shock and surprise when they discovered over 20,000 species of sea life for each liter of water. This amazing biodiversity was ten times all previous estimates. It has been said that looking thru a microscope and observing just one drop of seawater was like looking at the stars on a clear night. It is expected that this research will take us to over 1,200 different marine sites throughout the planet and that it will involve over 1,700 highly specialized researchers from over seventy different countries. This material should encourage youngsters and adults to look further into the subject and perhaps motivate some young student to consider a science fair project on the subject of bacteria in sea water.

As an example of how many interesting developments can result from a study of bacteria in sea water, here is a true story about someone who lost his fingers on his left hand because he did not know about an invisible killer, a deadly sea water bacteria that was thriving near his home in Southern Louisiana. He had been handling shrimp one day and did not wash his hands thoroughly. His fingers got swollen and he went to the local hospital emergency room. The deadly bacteria got into his skin and he was unaware that he had a fifty fifty chance of dying. People with immune disorders are at higher risk for potentially fatal complications. Very few of us are aware of the microscopic killer lurking in sea water. Many fishermen in these potentially dangerous southern waters wear gloves and wash their hands in Clorox.

Career In Actuarial Science

Education sector is growing at a great pace and constantly adding to the growth of the country. The sector of education is always in the stage of development, due to adoption of new techniques and education forms from the foreign countries. The students are always in the search of new fields, which could add to their skills and explore their opportunities in one or the other productive ways. The main aim of getting educated for a student is to earn a respectable amount of salary and frame for himself a bright career route leading to prosperous future. The school and college education these days, are also aimed at the growth of the students. Many new career prospects are coming and grabbing the interest of a large number of students.

Actuarial sciences are one of those fields, which are slowly attracting students to opt it as their career option. Actuarial science is a field, which basically deals with the mathematical and statistical numbers, to further assess the various risk factors in the insurance and the finance sectors. Actuarial science is a word, which is mostly referred to as a field related to the insurance sector. Professionals of this field are called Actuaries, and they generally provide services in the health, life, general, retirement and many other benefit plans. The students aiming for the course in Actuarial science need to have maths as their subjects in the senior secondary examination. There are colleges in India, which provide graduation as well as post graduation courses in actuarial science. Some of the colleges in India, providing actuarial science courses, are:

Bishop Herber College, Tamil Nadu

The National Insurance Academy, Pune

Academy of Insurance Management, New Delhi

Birla Institute of Management Technology, New Delhi

Bharathisadan University, Tamil Nadu

Bajaj Capital Business School, Mumbai

Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, IIT, Mumbai

Institute of Certified Risk and Insurance Managers, Hyderabad

University of Kalyani, West Bengal

Behrampur University, Orissa

The entrance to these colleges is mainly through an entrance test, conducted by the colleges of India. Also, the students who want to practise actuarial sciences as their career need to pass through an examination conducted by the Actuarial Society of India. The students appearing for these exams need to have a strong maths background to deal efficiently with the figures and statistics. The students with degrees in course of actuarial science are believed to possess the power of farsightedness. They are said to be highly evaluative and calculative when it comes to figures and can give a better opinion in terms of the financial outcomes of major future events.

Also, to practise the profession of actuarial science, the person needs to become a student member of Actuarial Society of India. There are various conditions, which the student should satisfy for becoming a student of the ASI. Out of which, the majors being the student of 18 years of age and above and should have maths as his major subjects in the senior secondary and the graduation levels. The examination of the Actuarial Society of India is divided into four stages, which are as follows:

Core Technical Stage: Consists of eight exams, each of 100 marks, and clearing all the exams is compulsory

Core Application Stage: Here the students have two compulsory subjects to pass

Specialist Technical Stage: It has six subjects, out of which a student can choose any two, according to his interests.

Specialist Application Stage: This examination stage also has six subjects, out of which a student needs to clear any one.

The scope for a student doing course in Actuarial science is getting very bright with more and more people opting for the banking and insurance services. Also, with the introduction of insurance services in the healthcare and other prominent sectors, the demand of the actuaries is bound to rise

Do Different Liquids Produce Different Levels Of Urine Science Fair Projects

Students have many options when it comes to the development of their science fair projects. If students are interested in medicine or biology then this project is a great option. It will examine how different types of liquids are processed by the body.


The hypothesis for this science fair project is that sugary liquids produce less urine then salty liquids do. The dependent variable in this hypothesis is the amount of urine produced and the independent variable in this hypothesis is the type of liquid that is drunk.

Supplies Needed

This science fair project will need several key pieces of equipment. First of all the student will need at least six to twelve test subjects that are generally healthy. The student will then need a urine collection and measuring device for each of their test subjects. These can be picked up at a medical supply company. The students will also need collection sheets which will be handed out to each test subject. Latex gloves can also be used when collecting urine volume samples.

The Experiment

To start with the student will need to conduct a control experiment. This will create a baseline of data to compare test results to. The control experiment will basically see how much urine is normally produced by each test subject on a daily basis. To collect this data each test subject will be given a urine volume collection container that fits into their toilet. They will then write down the volume of urine that they eliminate from their bodies on a daily basis over a week.

The test experiment will begin by dividing test subjects into two groups. Group A will be given sugary drinks and Group B will be given salty drinks. Each group will be assigned the same volume of liquid. The test subjects will be instructed not to drink anything other than their experiment liquids during the day. They will then monitor their urine output during test day 1, 2 and 3. The groups will then be given the other liquid type and the will be tested for another three days.

Data Analysis

The analysis of the data will involve several steps. First of all the students will need to organize the data by finding the average urine output for each test subject in the control experiment. This will create the baseline data. Next the average urine volume output for each test subject will be calculated for the sugary drink test. Finally the average urine volume output for each test subject will be calculated for the salty drink test. The results will be compared. Students will need to look for trends that indicate that the sugary drinks lead to a higher urine output change compared to the control than the salty drinks did to prove the hypothesis could be true. Otherwise the hypothesis is false.

Flirting Science

Where to flirt

Flirting is most socially acceptable at parties, celebrations and social occasions/functions. At some such events (e.g. Christmas/New Year parties) a degree of flirtatious behaviour is not only socially sanctioned, but almost expected.
This is because most parties, celebrations, carnivals and festivals are governed by a special code of behaviour which anthropologists call cultural remission a temporary, structured relaxation of normal social controls and restrictions.

This might just sound like a fancy way of saying letting your hair down, but it isnt. Cultural remission does not mean abandoning all your inhibitions, letting rip and behaving exactly as you please. There are rules of behaviour at even the wildest carnival although they may involve a complete reversal of normal, everyday social etiquette. Flirtatious behaviour which is normally frowned upon may be actively required, and prissy refusal to participate may incur disapproval.

Flirting is also socially acceptable in some public settings, usually where alcohol is served such as bars, pubs, night-clubs, discos, wine bars, restaurants, etc. One survey showed that 27% of British couples first met their current partner in a pub, and alcohol was voted the most effective aid to flirting by respondents in the Martini Flirting Survey.

Flirting in drinking-places is, however, subject to more conditions and restrictions than at parties. In pubs, for example, the area around the bar counter is universally understood to be the public zone, where initiating conversation with a stranger is acceptable, whereas sitting at a table usually indicates a greater desire for privacy. Tables furthest from the bar counter are the most private zones.

As a rule-of-thumb, the more food-oriented establishments or zones tend to discourage flirting between strangers, while those dedicated to drinking or dancing offer more socially sanctioned flirting opportunities. Restaurants and food-oriented or private zones within drinking-places are more conducive to flirting between established partners.

Schools, colleges, universities and other educational establishments are hot-beds of flirting. This is largely because they are full of young single people making their first attempts at mate selection.

Learning-places are also particularly conducive to flirting because the shared lifestyle and concerns of students, and the informal atmosphere, make it easy for them to initiate conversation with each other. Simply by being students, flirting partners automatically have a great deal in common, and do not need to struggle to find topics of mutual interest.

Flirting is officially somewhat more restricted in learning-places than in drinking-places, as education is supposed to take priority over purely social concerns, but in many cases the difference is not very noticeable. Taking a course or evening class may in fact provide more opportunities for relaxed, enjoyable flirting than frequenting bars and night-clubs.

At work, flirting is usually acceptable only in certain areas, with certain people and at specific times or occasions. There are no universal laws: each workplace or working environment has its own unwritten etiquette governing flirtatious behaviour.
In some companies, the coffee machine or cafeteria may be the unofficial designated flirting zones, other companies may frown on any flirting during office hours, or between managers and staff, while some may have a long-standing tradition of jokingly flirtatious morning greetings.

Careful observation of colleagues is the best way to discover the unspoken flirting etiquette of your own workplace but make sure that you are guided by the behaviour of the most highly regarded individuals in the company, not the office clown, groper or bimbo.

Participant sports/hobbies
Almost any participant sport or hobby can involve flirting. The level of flirtatious behaviour, however, often tends to be inversely related to the standards achieved by participants and their enthusiasm for the activity.

You will generally find a lot of flirting among incompetent tennis players, unfit swimmers, cackhanded potters, etc., but somewhat less among more proficient, serious, competitive participants in the same activities. There are of course exceptions to this rule, but before joining a team or club, it is worth trying to find out if the members have burning ambitions to play in the national championships or win prestigious awards for their handiwork. If you are mainly looking for
flirting opportunities, avoid these high-flying groups, and seek out clubs full of happy, sociable under-achievers.

Spectator events
Although they have the advantage of providing conversation topics of mutual interest, most sporting events and other spectator pastimes such as theatre or cinema are not particularly conducive to flirting, as social interaction is not the primary purpose of the occasion, and social contact may limited to a short interval or require missing the action.

The most striking exception to this rule is horseracing, where all the action takes place in just a few minutes, the half-hour interval between races is dedicated to sociability, and friendly interaction between strangers is ctively encouraged by racecourse etiquette. In fact, our own recent research on the behaviour of racegoers indicates that the social micro-climate of the racecourse makes it one of the best flirting environments in Britain.

Who to flirt with
Flirting for fun At one level, you can flirt with more or less anyone. An exchange of admiring glances or a bit of light-hearted flirtatious banter can brighten the day, raise self-esteem and strengthen social bonds. Flirtation at this level is harmless fun, and only the stuffiest killjoys could possibly have any objections.

Clearly, it makes sense to exercise a degree of caution with people who are married or attached.

Most people in long-term relationships can cope with a bit of admiration, and may even benefit from knowing that others find them or their partners attractive, but couples differ in their tolerance of flirtatious behaviour, and it is important to be alert to signs of discomfort or distress.

Research has also shown that men have a tendency to mistake friendly behaviour for sexual flirting. This is not because they are stupid or deluded, but because they tend to see the world in more sexual terms than women. There is also evidence to suggest that women are naturally more socially skilled than men, better at interpreting peoples behaviour and responding appropriately.

Indeed, scientists have recently claimed that women have a special diplomacy gene which me lack.

This means that women need to be particularly careful to avoid sending ambiguous signals in interactions with married men, and men need to be aware that married/attached males may misinterpret friendly behaviour towards their wives/girlfriends. Otherwise, light-hearted flirtation is both harmless and enjoyable.

Flirting with intent
But flirting is also an essential element of the mate-selection process, and when you are flirting with intent, rather than just flirting for fun, you need to be a bit more selective about your choice of target.

In mate-selection flirting, there are two basic rules about who to flirt with that will increase your chances of success and reduce the likelihood of embarrassing rejections.

1. Do initiate flirtation with people of roughly the same level of attractiveness as

This will give you the best chance of compatability. Most successful marriages and long-term relationships are between partners of more or less equal good looks. There is some leeway, of course, and other qualities are also important, but statistically, relationships where one partner is much more attractive than the other tend to be less successful. Studies have shown that the more evenly matched partners are in their attractiveness, the more likely they are to stay together.

But evaluating your own attractiveness may be difficult. Research has shown that many women have a poor body-image, and often underestimate their attractiveness. Some recent studies indicate, for example, that up to 80% of adult women believe that they are too fat, and try to achieve a figure that is around two sizes smaller than the body-size men find most desirable. If you are female, the odds are that you are more attractive than you think, so try flirting with some betterlooking

Men generally tend to be less critical of their own physical appearance than women. This is partly because standards of beauty for males are much less rigid than for females, and a wider variety of shapes and features are considered attractive. But it must be said that some men are also inclined to overestimate their attractiveness. If you are a more honest male, and do not consider yourself good-looking, remember that most men lack expertise in the subtleties of social
interaction, so polishing up your flirting skills could give you the edge over a more attractive rival.

2. Dont flirt with people who are unlikely to return your interest. Even if you are not looking for a long-term mate, you will enjoy flirting more with someone who
is interested in you. So it makes sense to approach people who are likely to see you as at least a possible partner, rather than those likely to dismiss you as unsuitable.

Evolution has favoured males who select young, attractive mates and females who select partners with power, wealth and status. Men therefore naturally tend to seek women who are younger than them and place greater emphasis on physical beauty, while women are more likely to favour older males with higher status and earning potential. Women also tend to prefer men who are taller than them. Analysis of thousands of personal ads where people are more explicit about their requirements, and more obviously conscious of the requirements of others shows that these are the qualities most frequently demanded and offered by mate-seekers.

Short, low-status males and older, less attractive females may therefore be a bit more restricted in their choice of potential partners, although there are many exceptions to this rule, and confidence and charm can outweigh apparent disadvantages.

In the How to Flirt section, you will find tips on how to tell immediately, even from across a crowded room, whether someone is likely to return your interest or not.

How to flirt
The first key to successful flirting is not an ability to show off and impress, but the knack of conveying that you like someone. If your target knows that you find him or her interesting and attractive, he or she will be more inclined to like you.
Although this simple fact has been demonstrated in countless studies and experiments, you dont really need scientists to prove it. You already know that when you are told someone fancies you, or hear that someone has praised or admired you, your interest in that person automatically increases – even if it is someone you have never met!

Conveying that you like someone, and judging whether or not the attraction is mutual, clearly involves a combination of verbal and non-verbal communication skills.
When asked about flirting, most people particularly men focus on the verbal element: the chatting-up, the problems of knowing what to say, finding the right words, etc. In fact, the nonverbal element body-language, tone of voice, etc. is much more important, particularly in the initial stages of a flirtation.

When you first meet new people, their initial impression of you will be based 55% on your appearance and body-language, 38% on your style of speaking and only 7% on what you actually say.

Also, their non-verbal signals will tell you much more about their feelings towards you than the words they use. We show attitudes such as liking and disliking not by what we say but by the way we say it and the posture, gestures and expressions that accompany our speech.
he customary polite greeting “pleased to meet you”, for example, can convey anything from I find you really attractive to I am not the slightest bit interested in you, depending on the tone of voice, facial expression, position and posture of the speaker.

Non-verbal flirting
When a man and a woman meet for the first time, both are in a difficult, ambiguous and potentially risky situation. Neither person knows what the others intentions and feelings are. Because stating intentions and feelings verbally involves a high risk of embarrassment or possible rejection, non-verbal behaviour becomes the main channel of communication. Unlike the spoken word, body language can signal invitation, acceptance or refusal without being too obvious, without causing offence or making binding commitments.

Warning: some of the non-verbal flirting techniques outlined in this section are very powerful signals, and should be used with caution. Women should be particularly careful when using signals of interest and attraction. Men already tend to mistake friendliness for flirting; if your signals of interest are too direct and obvious, they will mistake them for sexual availability.

Eye contact
Your eyes are probably your most important flirting tool. We tend to think of our eyes mainly as a means of receiving information, but they are also extremely high-powered transmitters of vital social signals. How you look at another person, meet his or her gaze and look away can make all the difference between a successful, enjoyable flirtation and an embarrassing or hurtful encounter. Eye contact looking directly into the eyes of another person is such a powerful, emotionally loaded act of communication that we normally restrict it to very brief glances. Prolonged eye contact between two people indicates intense emotion, and is either an act of love or an act of hostility. It is so disturbing that in normal social encounters, we avoid eye contacts of more than one second. Among a crowd of strangers in a public setting, eye contacts will generally last only a fraction of second, and most people will avoid making any eye contact at all.

This is very good news for anyone wishing to initiate a flirtation with an attractive stranger. Even from across a crowded room at a party, you can signal your interest in someone merely by making eye contact and attempting to hold your targets gaze for more than one second (not too much more, though, or you will seem threatening). If your target maintains eye contact with you for more than one second, the chances are that he/she might return your interest. If after this initial
contact, your target looks away briefly and then looks back to meet your gaze a second time, you can safely assume that he/she is interested. If these eye contacts trigger a smile, you can approach your target with some confidence.

If, on the other hand, your target avoids making eye contact with you, or looks away after a fraction of a second and does not look back again, you should probably assume that your interest is not returned. There is still the possibility that your target is just a very shy person and some females may be understandably wary of signalling any interest in male strangers. The only way to find out is by close observation of your targets behaviour towards others. Does she consistently
avoid direct eye-contact with men? Does he seem nervous, anxious or aloof in his interactions with other women? If so, your targets reluctance to meet your gaze may be nothing personal, and it might be worth approaching, but only with considerable caution.

Once you have approached your target, you will need to make eye contact again in order to strike up a conversation. As soon as your eyes meet, you may begin to speak. Once a conversation begins, it is normal for eye contact to be broken as the speaker looks away. In conversations, the person who is speaking looks away more than the person who is listening, and turn-taking is governed by a characteristic pattern of looking, eye contact and looking away.

So, to signal that you have finished speaking and invite a response, you then look back at your target again. To show interest while your target is speaking, you need to look at his/her face about three-quarters of the time, in glances lasting between one and seven seconds. The person speaking will normally look at you for less than half this time, and direct eye contact will be intermittent, rarely lasting more than one second. When your target has finished speaking, and expects a response, he or she will look at you and make brief eye contact again to indicate that it is your

The basic rules for pleasant conversation are: glance at the other persons face more when you are listening, glance away more when you are speaking and make brief eye contact to initiate turn-taking. The key words here are glance and brief: avoid prolonged staring either at the other person or away.

The most common mistake people make when flirting is to overdo the eye contact in a premature attempt to increase intimacy. This only makes the other person feel uncomfortable, and may send misleading signals. Some men also blow their chances by carrying on a conversation with a womans breasts, rather than looking at her face.

Interpersonal distance
The distance you keep from the other person when flirting is important, because it will affect his or her impression of you, and the quality of your interaction. Perhaps even more importantly, paying attention to the other persons use of distance will tell you a great deal about his/her reactions and feelings towards you.
When you first approach an attractive stranger, having established at least an indication of mutual interest through eye contact, try to make eye contact again at about 4ft away, before moving any closer. At 4 ft (about two small steps away), you are on the borderline between what are known as the social zone (4 to 12 ft) and the personal zone (18in to 4ft).

If you receive a positive response at 4ft, move in to arms length (about 2ft 6in). If you try to approach much closer than this, particularly if you try to cross the 18in personal zone/intimate zone border, your target may feel uncomfortable. The intimate zone (less than 18in) is reserved for lovers, family and very close friends. If you are close enough to whisper and be heard, you are probably too close for comfort. These distance rules apply particularly in face-to-face encounters. We will tolerate reduced interpersonal distances when we are side by side with someone. This is because when you are alongside someone, it is easier to use other aspects of body language, such as turning away or avoiding eye contact, to limit your level of involvement with the other person.

You can therefore approach a bit closer than arms length if you are alongside your target at the bar counter of a pub, for example rather than face-to-face. But be careful to avoid intrusive body-language such as prolonged eye contact or touching.

If you have misjudged the appropriate distance, in either a face-to-face or side-by-side encounter, the other persons discomfort may show in his/her body language. Your target may attempt to turn away or avert his/her gaze to avoid eye contact. You may also see barrier signals such as folding the arms or crossing knees, or rubbing the neck with the elbow pointed towards you. If you see any of these signs, back off!

Finally, remember that different people have different reactions to distance. If your target is from a Mediterranean or Latin American country (known as the contact cultures), he or she may be comfortable with closer distances than a British or Northern European person. North Americans fall somewhere between these two extremes. Different personality-types may also react differently to your approach: extroverts and those who generally feel at ease in company will be comfortable with closer distances than introverts and shy or nervous types. Even the same person may vary in tolerance from day to day, according to mood: when we are feeling depressed or irritable, we find close distances more uncomfortable.

Dating Back To Science In Olden Days

If you sit and analyze the working of nature and people around you, you will notice that everything starting from your breathing to your mobile phone is a product of science. While the field of biology covers all the living organisms on earth, physics, mathematics and chemistry take care of the rest. When it comes to technology especially, it is physics and mathematics working wonders and making their play, while chemistry provides them with a platform in the form of chemicals, minerals and elements. Technology is the modern derivative of science. Science was in turn derived from a Latin word ‘scientia’.

The History of science can be dated back to as far as the B.C or Before Christ period, where there existed great philosophers like Aristotle, Theophrastus and others. The major part of the ancient science period consisted of many personalities from Greece. It was considered to be the temple of knowledge. This trend slowly started subsiding and the concept of science started spreading. Many countries like India also had its fair share of philosophers and scientific inventions through the form of Aryabhatta and others. But, this was not advocated widely as the means of communication between the countries were not established.

The real scientific revolution took place only after the sixteenth century. Most of the modern day scientific theories were formed during this time. Be it theory of relativity by Albert Einstein, law of gravity by Sir Isaac Newton, Theory of evolution by Charles Darwin or the invention of electric bulb by Thomas Alva Edison – every one thing of this happened during the sixteenth century. These theories were what paved way for the modern day scientists. Without forefathers like these, modern day science would have taken several more years to have been as developed as found today.

Einstein is considered one of the greatest scientists of all time and he was the man of the 20th century with the publications of several of his papers on the theory of relativity, wave-particle duality and several other physics breakthroughs which were accepted only a little later because of the apprehensions of all the scientists of that time to digest several new concepts. Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics.

One of the greatest ever scientific discoveries which form the basis of the world we live in today came from the man called Thomas Alva Edison. It was the invention of the Electric Bulb. Edison worked hard on this invention that, he tried hundreds and hundreds of filaments before he came up with the tungsten filament. This bulb is still in use today even after more than hundreds of years in its original form without much change. As the filament has to be stable even under constant temperature of the Celsius of thousands of degrees, the problem of finding the right filament was a particularly tedious job. Science still continues to be the most fascinating field of mankind and keeps opening doors for the human civilization to grow and prosper. After all, the thirst to know is what separates us from other animals!

Forensic Science PPT Templates

Well, to initiate with the topic, the primary thing one must do is to have a thorough understanding of what forensic science actually is. Actually, forensic science is a term which is used to describe numerous sciences which serves with the answers of the questions regarding either a legal or an illegal issue. This term come from the Latin word forensic, which means, of or before the forum.

In today’s world, forensic science, or, simply forensics is mentioned when we talk about legal court in order to discuss and carry out decisions related to civil or criminal issues. Also, forensics is very often used in literature and in making motion pictures.

Now, the main question arises what types of sciences does forensic science cover? Broadly categorizing, the forensic science covers six main areas. These are the field of medical examiner, crime laboratory analyst, crime scene examiner, forensic engineer, academic assistance and technical assistance. This is also to be considered that each of the area which involves existence of forensic science is essential to create a clear picture of a specific crime evidences and proofs of that crime pointing towards the guilty.

Forensic science also involve specialists who concentrate on a single case at a time and bring out a professional opinion about that case.

To become a successful forensic expert, one must possess certain skills. These include:

1. The ability to use scientific methods to solve the work related issues

2. The ability to identify if something is going wrong and try to solve that problem

3. Close attention to details

4. The ability to read and understand ideas and pattern in written format

5. Ability to read details at close range

6. In-depth knowledge of chemical compositions including their structure and properties

7. Knowledge of geometry, calculus, arithmetic, statistics and their applications

It is also important to mention here that like every other profession, forensics also have certain professional ethics to be followed by a forensic expert.

These ethics are:

1. Following principles of natural justice.

2. Favor a neutral behavior.

3. Follow a self-disciplined behavior.

4. Keep up with the moral values of the profession.

5. Never misled or misguide a case towards a wrong direction.

Sometimes, forensic professionals may require to make certain forensic science powerpoint presentations to provide a better understanding of the concepts to either the forensic team or to the professionals involved in a particular criminal case. Here, forensic science powerpoint templates come to the rescue as they are intended to make a presentation more professional, attractive, exclusive and impressive. Also, a Forensic Science powerpoint template has the ability to provide a life-like look to a boring, mundane and monotonous presentation by adding several kinds of graphics to a forensic science powerpoint template.

Cool And Amazing Science Fair Project Ideas

To get an A+ in the science fair: Choose among these 5 science projects: How fruits and vegetables ripen, oil slick, salt volcano, homemade barometer, and got gas.

The annual science fair is fast approaching. Surely you want to present something new and cool that would surely impress your science teachers and can help you earn a science ribbon. We offer you these some award-winning science projects that you might want to try.

How fruits and vegetables ripen

This experiment aims to tackle the different factors that can affect the rate a fruit or vegetable ripen. Discuss how temperature, light, exposure to other ripened fruits and placing in containing can help aid the ripening process.

Oil slick

This experiment aims to know which materials can effectively clean an oil spill. Fill a bowl with water and add a few tablespoons of oil. See which materials are effective in removing the oil in water. You can use cotton, a gauze then a polypropylene cloth. You can see that the polypropylene cloth is the most effective since it a similar chemical composition with oil. Because of this, they are attracted to each other. Give some insights after the demonstration like how you can give ways in helping clean up oil spills and some insights on the different oil leak disasters in history.

Salt volcano

Make your own lava lamp. Pour about 3 inches of water in a glass then add about 1/3 cup of cooking oil. Observe for reactions in each step. Add a drop of food coloring next. Then shake some salt over the solution. Explain to the class why does oil float on water, then what happens if the salt if dissolved in the water after passing through the layer of oil. To finish it, explain why this experiment resembles to how a lava lamp functions.

Homemade barometer

If you are fond of meteorology, you can make your own barometer to help predict weather at home. Fill a measuring cup with dyed water. Place an empty soda bottle upside down into the cup. Find a bottle that fits the mouth of the cup without touching it’s bottom. Make sure that the water level reaches the neck of the bottle. Make a mark on the cup to indicate the water level inside the bottle then observe for a few days. After, explain how the air pressure affects the contents of the bottle to class.

Got gas

This experiment aims to break down water into Hydrogen and Oxygen. Sharpen both ends of 2 pencils removing the erasers or any metal parts. Fill a jar with water then cover with cardboard then tape it. Insert the one pencil through the cardboard then do the same with the other one 3 cms away. Make sure the both pencil leads are of the same level in the water. Using a wire, connect the one of one pencil to the negative terminal of a lamp battery and the other one on the positive. Observe for bubbles at the pencil leads inside the jar. Afterward, give explanation to this chemical change.

Be confident in your presentation. After choosing the right concept then partnered with a comprehensive explanation, that science ribbon would be yours.

Parental Involvement leads to Success in Science

Early exposure to science is critical because science knowledge is cumulative. Learning science requires a solid foundation of knowledge that can be built upon through further study and exploration. Children should be introduced to science at home as early as possible. Don’t make the mistake of thinking that your child learns all the science they need to know at school. The truth is science education in school is limited and the subject is not usually a high priority for educators. As parents, it is important that we share our knowledge with our children. Every day activities such as growing plants, cooking and caring for animals involve science. Take a look around and you will see that science is everywhere. Parents can choose to engage in scientific activities with their children when they are not in school to build scientific comprehension, encourage scientific exploration and foster a love for science and the pursuit of knowledge. There are aspects of science that are intellectually demanding, but often simple experiences produce insightful learning. To engage your children in science you need to introduce them to stimulating environments that provide opportunities for observing and discussing science. Zoos, nature centers, oceans, parks, yards and even kitchens are perfect educational environments. Children naturally learn through playful exploration. Educational DVDs, and toys provoke thought and develop skills. When children ask questions to satisfy their natural curiosity, it is an open opportunity to be seized by the parent.

For instance, if a child is fascinated by a light switch and wants to know how it turns the light on and off, inquire into the subject with your child. Find out why and how the switch works. Why does yeast make bread rise? How does a spider spin a web? Why do leaves fall? Why do the birds disappear in the winter?

Identify your child’s interests and encourage them. If a child develops an interest in rocks, study rocks, gems, mining and fossils and build on that curiosity moving on to fossil fuels, heat generation and environmental effects. You will find that one inquiry leads to another.

Fuel their natural curiosity. These activities should be challenging without being frustrating. Don’t force them to do things they are not interested in; rather, engage them in motivating activities that build desire for further exploration. Share your own science related interests and you will be amazed by the impact of genuine enthusiasm. Remember that discussion is a key component to developing scientific knowledge and uncovering additional areas of interest. Encourage your child to talk about their experiences, observations and interests. This discussion will help children to construct thoughts, to form concepts and to examine different relationships that are intermingled in their ideas.

Some simple activities that foster knowledge of and interest in science include: “Finding out how and why things work”, “Sharing ideas and knowledge”, “Making observations and writing or drawing those observations down”, “Making predictions and seeking answers”, “Starting collections -such as rocks or bugs- and observing similarities and differences”, “Figuring out what causes things to change”, “Having science parties with family and friends”, “Enrolling your child in classes or extra-curricular activities involving science”.

Your home, your environment and your surroundings are filled with opportunities to share science with your children. Through engaging their interests and encouraging their search for knowledge, you can ensure success in science!

Can You Use First Person In An Abstract For Science Fair Projects

One of the requirements of entering a science fair is to complete a science fair project report. To be graded or scored well, the student needs to use the correct format, voice, tone and style, and they will need to include the right elements. Fortunately, all of these things are easy to accomplish once you know what is expected of you.

Writing Style

The first question that many students have that relate to writing a science fair project report is if it is okay to write in the first person. Students cannot write in the first person when writing a science fair project report. The entire report needs to be written in third person. This can be tricky as students are discussing what they did and what they discovered.

In addition to writing the report in third person, students will also want to avoid creative tones in their writing. While students are encouraged to use similes, metaphors and other creative expressions in English class, these are generally not appropriate in science writing. Students want to keep things as simple and straight forward as possible. The key is to explain the situation with as few words as possible.


Clarity is one of the characteristics that judges will be looking for when scoring your science fair project. They are going to evaluate how easy your report was to understand, how logical it progressed from data to conclusions and how organized the overall report was. The design of your display board and you presentation will also be judged for clarity.

Formatting Your Report

Formatting is very important when you start science writing. To start with you will want to select a 12 point font that is easy to read, like Times New Roman or Courier. Next you will want to double space your report and create a one inch all around margin. Finally, you will want to add a header that includes your project title and a page number.

The format of your science fair project report will also need to follow a common layout. Most reports will have the following sections in this order: (1) title page, (2) abstract, (3) introduction, (4) background research, (5) methodology (experiment), (6) data and data analysis, (7) discussion and conclusions and (8) bibliography. Each of these sections will be broken down into sub-sections. For example, the methodology section will include subheadings of supplies and experiment design while the introduction will contain information about the hypothesis, the reason for selecting the topic that was selected and definitions of terms used in the report.

Gate Exam 2015 Books For Computer Science Stream Preparation

The computer science is one of the most popular and the easiest subjects for gate exam. The advanced technology gives us lifestyle to live under the internet age with laptops surrounded. It is beneficial as we somehow know many things about computers, so here are some important tips for the Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering 2015.

Gate Exam Computer Science Paper Pattern 2015

It consists of 3 papers. The engineering mathematics weightage is 13%. The general aptitude consists of 15%. While remaining 72 percentage marks focus on core subject. The questions are very simple for everyone. Multiple choice questions makes easy to answer the things. Negative marking is applicable, prepare to tick for right answers if required to enjoy gate study.

Syllabus includes following subjects

Engineering Mathematics
1.Mathematical Logic
3.Set Theory & Algebra
5.Graph Theory
6.Linear Algebra
7.Numerical Methods
Computer Science and Information Technology
1.Mathematical Logic
3.Set Theory & Algebra
5.Graph Theory
6.Linear Algebra
7.Numerical Methods
Digital Logic
1.Computer Organization and Architecture
2.Programming and Data Structures
4.Theory of Computation
5.Compiler Design
6.Operating System
8.Information Systems and Software Engineering
9.Computer Networks
10.Web technologies

The most important in gate exam is to prepare well, but what all require guidance, so here are some important tips for every Gate preparation student including computer science students.

Visit to get Gate Exam 2015 Books for Computer Science

Study everyday for every subject, including CS and maths. Do not get out of touch while preparing for GATE exam.
Study according to the syllabus; dont go for that content which is not in the syllabus.
A study schedule is necessary, give more time to weaker areas
Prepare detailed list of topics. When complete mark tick.
To boost confidence chat with family members and study positive books
Preparing for maths, understand the basic concepts and then prepare for the applications in depth
Point out the important formulae, and write on a piece of paper, helpful read before the exam
For maths, practice makes man perfect
Practice wide variety of questions
Prefer Gate exam books 2015 from well establishes publications such a Nodia Publications
To avoid confusion, make flow charts, it boost your understanding power
Think to attempt those questions in gate exam for which you are confidence
The group study with friends is a good idea
Practice, practice, practice, is the only key to success in examination style
Leave those questions in the final exam, which makes you unconfident; dont waste time for unknown answers

Stay cool and calm during exam, sleep well before the exam, you’ll easily clear your Computer Science GATE 2015.